Howard Gardner 
Multiple Intelligences 

Multiple Intelligences: Introduction to the Basic Theory:

 The theory of multiple intelligences (MI) was first offered to the educational community by Harvard psychologist Howard Gardner (1983). Since it was first introduced this theory has captured the attention of numerous researchers, authors, and educators. Its intuitive appeal and rich experiential basis have led to a profusion of books and articles on the subject. Since his first book on MI Gardner himself has authored or co-authored more than eighty books and articles on the subject. The theory has enjoyed robust evolution since its inception.

Gardner (1983) proposed the notion that human beings have not just one type of intelligence, but several. Previously intelligence had been defined by measurable results on standardized intelligence tests. Gardner described seven different types of intelligence in his 1983 book. Later he added an eighth intelligence, and has suggested two others that are still being explored (Gardner, 1999). Gardner’s recent definition of an intelligence was “a biopsychological potential to process information that can be activated in a cultural setting to solve problems or create products that are of value in a culture” (Gardner, 1999, p.33-34.) As such, it clearly involves processes that are carried out by dedicated neural networks. He emphasized that in natural behavior the intelligences operate together. Separating them for learning and discussion is an artificial process. Gardner pointed out that only two of the intelligences, linguistic and logical/mathematical, have been emphasized in American education since its inception, with all the others being ignored or under-developed.

Gardner (1999) made two fundamental claims about multiple intelligences, (1) that the theory accounts for the full range of human cognition, and (2) each individual has a unique blend of the various intelligences that contributes to his/her personal predilections and abilities. One of the main challenges for educators and individuals is for each person to develop his/her intelligences to the fullest.
The Intelligences

Gardner (1999) made two fundamental claims about multiple intelligences, (1) that the theory accounts for the full range of human cognition, and (2) each individual has a unique blend of the various intelligences that contributes to his/her personal predilections and abilities. One of the main challenges for educators and individuals is for each person to develop his/her intelligences to the fullest.

Gardner’s (1983) original seven intelligences were (1)

  1. Linguistic/Verbal
  2. Logical-mathematical,
  3. Musical,
  4. Bodily-kinesthetic,
  5. Spatial,
  6. Interpersonal, and
  7. Intrapersonal.

In his later book (Gardner, 1999) he proposed three additional intelligences,

Naturalist,

Spiritual, and

Existential.

For further reference go to:http://www.lifecircles-inc.com/Learningtheories/Gardner.html

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